Malaria Vector Control
Malaria Treatment

Still Taxed to Death: An Analysis of Taxes and Tariffs on Medicines, Vaccines and Medical Devices  - Roger Bate, Richard Tren & Jasson Urbach
Bate, Tren & Urbach update their working paper on taxes and tariffs on medicines and medical devices - published by the AEI-Brookings Joint Centre.

The WTO and Access to Essential Medicines: Recent Agreements , New Assignments  - Dr Roger Bate & Richard Tren
Roger Bate and Richard Tren discuss the recent WTO agreement on TRIPS and public health and recommend that the WTO now turn its attention towards removing import tariffs on medicines and medical devices, which have been shown to reduce access to medicines and medical care.

Brazil's AIDS Program - A Costly Success  - Richard Tren & Roger Bate
Richard Tren & Roger Bate comment on Brazil's AIDS Treatment program which has achieved some notable successes, but potentially reduces research into new AIDS medicines and could result in large long term costs down the line.

AFM testimony to the US Senate Committee on Environment & Public Works  - Roger Bate & Richard Tren
Download the testimony given by AFM's Roger Bate and Richard Tren to the US Senate's Committee on Environment and Public Works. The hearing, chaired by Sen. Inhofe (R, OK) was set up to look at the role of science and environmental policy - what better case study than DDT?

An Immesurable Crisis? A Criticism of the Millennium Development Goals and Why They Cannot Be Measured  - Prof. Amir Attaran
Prof. Amir Attaran evaluates the Millennium Development Goals and criticises them for being unmeasurable and therefore largely meaningless. He also criticises the UN for failing to discuss the measurement of these goals at the September 2005 UN meeting on the MDGs.

State in Fear - Zimbabwe's Tragedy is Africa's Shame  - Archbishop Pius Ncube, Dr Roger Bate & Richard Tren
Catholic Archbishop of Bulawayo Pius Ncube, Dr Roger Bate and Richard Tren report on the horrific abuses of human rights by Mugabe's police and military. The authors call on the G8 leaders to exert pressure on African leaders, such as President Mbeki, to condemn Mugabe's regime and support the return of peace and democracy in Zimbabwe.

AFM's Comment on the WHA Malaria Resolution  - AFM
The World Health Assembly recently passed a resolution on malaria control. The WHO and UNICEF also recently published their World Malaria Report. AFM comments here on some aspects of the resolution and report.

Senate Hearings on USAID  -
The Senate Hearings on USAID's involvement in malaria control led to significant challenges to the agency's activities. Download the testimonies from USAID, Senator Sam Brownback, Professor Amir Attaran and AFM's Dr Roger Bate here.

Eliminate Neglected Diseases Act of 2005  -
Senator Sam Brownback's Eliminate Neglected Diseases Act of 2005 has been dropped in the US Senate. Read the Act and supporting documents here.

Taxed to Death  - Roger Bate, Richard Tren and Jasson Urbach
AFM publishes a working paper on the degree to which import tariffs, taxes and bureaucratic procedures block access to essential medicines in poor countries. See the latest version of this ongoing study here.

Despotism & Disease  - Richard Tren & Roger Bate
Africa Fighting Malaria report on the destruction of the Zimbabwean healthcare sector and the probable impacts on the entire region. Download the pdf version of this report here.

Ugandan Study Highlights Best Drug Combinations for Treating Malaria in Africa  - The Lancet
Results of a randomised trial from Uganda in this week’s issue of THE LANCET suggest that the drug combination of amodiaquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine might offer the optimal treatment for malaria in terms of efficacy and cost-effectiveness in this region. The study also shows that the drug combination of chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine—the recommended first-line treatment in Uganda—is far less effective than other drug combinations.

Climate Change and Malaria  - Indur Goklany - with response from Sir David King
Indur Goklany offers some fascinating insights into climate change, malaria, poverty and development. Sir David King, the UK Government's chief scientific adviser gives a predicable response.

The Real Obstacles to Sound Treatment of AIDS in Poor Countries  - Roger Bate & Richard Tren
Writing for the American Enterprise Institute's Health Policy Outlook, Bate and Tren explore some of the reasons for low drug access in poor countries. Despite promises of cheap or free antiretroviral drugs, Bate and Tren argue that access to treatment in poor countries is abysmally low because of a lack of infrastructure, political indifference, excessive bureaucracy and taxes and tariffs.

South Africa's War Against Malaria - Lessons for the Developing World  - Richard Tren & Roger Bate
The Cato Institute published Richard Tren and Roger Bate's analysis of South Africa's recent history with malaria control. They argue that its policy on DDT use and Artemesinin based combination therapy provide excellent examples for other malarial countries.

SA's Leading Malaria Researchers Support DDT Use  -
South Africa’s leading malaria control experts, researchers and doctors support and endorse the use of the insecticide DDT to control malaria. Their statement is released in light of recent claims that DDT is harmful to human health and should be removed from South Africa’s malaria control programme.

South African Malaria Data  - SA Dept of Health
November 2003 - the malaria statistics show that malaria is still well under control in South Africa. A recent epidemic in the Limpopo Province was primarily caused by late spraying and poor case management.

South Africa Malaria Data  - SA Dept of Health
The latest data on malaria cases and deaths from South Africa show that the country's policy of indoor residual spraying with DDT (among other insecticides) and the use of artemesinin based combination therapy is working. KwaZulu Natal, traditionally the province with the worst malaria and the centre of the recent epidemic has only recorded 1 malaria death this year!

South Africa Malaria Statistics  - Dept of Health
The 11th Dept of Health Malaria Update shows the latest number of confirmed cases and deaths from malaria in the three malarial provinces of South Africa.

Saving Lives Today and Tomorrow  - Dr. Roger Bate
This paper analyses trends in drug development using data from the drug industry association, the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA). Worryingly, the findings suggest that far fewer AIDS drugs are in development compared to several years ago, and at a time when drug development for other communicable diseases is increasing. There are several probable explanations for this phenomenon, but the least benign is the likelihood that continual pressure group and media attacks on the industry over pricing of drugs in Africa has reduced incentives for development of new AIDS medicines

South African Malaria Update  - SA Dept of Health
The latest malaria update from the Directorate of Communicable Diseases.


February 2003

Welcome to the 10th National Malaria Update.

This update serves to present the current trends in the national malaria cases and deaths for South Africa. The update reports on data mainly from the malaria affected provinces in South Africa. It provides feedback to a range of persons involved in malaria control programmes. The figures presented are subject to modification as provinces conduct follow-ups and verify the data.

Annual malaria notifications

The annual notified malaria cases for South Africa for 1999-2003 are presented below. The malaria notifications for February 2003, demonstrate a 91% reduction in cases compared to those for February 2000. Data from 2000 is used as a “baseline” for monitoring malaria control” in South Africa as South Africa experienced a malaria epidemic during 2000 with 64 622 malaria cases having been reported.

Seasonal malaria notifications

Malaria transmission in South Africa is seasonal and is therefore best presented graphically using seasonal data. The provincial seasonal data (July – June) is outlined below.


For the month of February 2003, 486 cases of malaria were reported representing a 71% decrease in comparison to the January 2003 case totals. Three malaria deaths were notified for February 2003. Refer to the Box A below for the latest update on the recent malaria outbreak in the Limpopo province.


For February 2003, 152 malaria cases and 0 malaria deaths were notified. Active surveillance detected 23 positive malaria cases (15%). Just less than half (43%) of the notified cases for the month were from the Tonga health district.


For February 2003, 153 malaria cases and zero malaria deaths were notified. If the reported malaria cases from February 2003 are compared to those of February 2002, there has been a 43% decrease in the number of reported malaria cases for KwaZulu-Natal.

Compiled by the National Malaria Control Programme, National Department of Health, with the assistance of the Provincial Malaria Control Programme Managers

Please contact Ms Johnson for any enquiries at tel no: (012) 312-0046 or e-mail:

BOX A: Update on Malaria Outbreak in Limpopo Province - 26 February 2003

Extracted from a report compiled by Philip KrugerManager: Malaria Control

During January 2003, the province experienced a malaria outbreak in the Vhembe district and parts of the Mopani district. Currently, the malaria situation has returned to normal throughout the province with case numbers below normal for this time of the year being reported

Malaria showed a dramatic decrease as from the last week of January. Thus far into February, this trend of low case numbers is continuing in the province. Cases reported for January and February are as follows:

January 2003

February 2003







Rest of the province



Total cases






The graph below indicates the monthly malaria cases in the province since July 1995.

The Limpopo province is an epidemic prone malaria area and sporadic outbreaks will occur from time to time, despite having a successful malaria control programme. Observations over time indicate that outbreaks tend to occur during January of each year. This is normally as a result of an increase in the movement of people and some behavior change during the festive season of spending more time outdoors. The lesson to learn from this is that more emphasis should be placed on creating community awareness of malaria during this time of the year.

The malaria control programme, together with district structures, is busy with an effort to ensure that all health staff is confident and updated with malaria diagnosis and treatment protocols. A training session for health staff was held in Vhembe on 19 February and a similar workshop is planned in Mopani for 6 March. The malaria situation in the province will continue to be closely monitored.