Research

Fever treatment in the absence of malaria transmission in an urban informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

Yazoume Ye et al | 15 Jul 2009 | Malaria Journal

In sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge of malaria transmission across rapidly proliferating urban centres and recommendations for its prevention or management remain poorly defined.

Pilot Study of Essential Drug Quality in Two Major Cities in India

Roger Bate et al | 23 Jun 2009 | PLoS One

A pilot study was conducted in two major cities in India, Delhi and Chennai, to explore the question/hypothesis/extent of substandard and counterfeit drugs available in the market and to discuss how the Indian state and federal governments could improve drug regulation and more importantly regulatory enforcement to combat these drugs.

Use of drugs, perceived drug efficacy and preferred providers for febrile children: implications for home management of fever

Elizeus Rutebemberwa et al | 12 Jun 2009 | Malaria Journal

Community distribution of anti-malarials and antibiotics has been recommended as a strategy to reduce the under-five mortality due to febrile illnesses in sub-Saharan Africa. However, drugs distributed in these interventions have been considered weak by some caretakers and utilization of community medicine distributors has been low.

Pilot study comparing technologies to test for substandard drugs in field settings

Roger Bate, Richard Tren, Kimberly Hess, Lorraine Mooney & Karen Porter | 27 Apr 2009 | African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Researchers procured a range of antimalarial, antibiotic and antimycobacterial drugs from cities in six countries: Ghana, India, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda. Semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and disintegration tests, Raman spectrometry, and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry were used to measure the concentration of active ingredients and excipients (spectrometry only) to determine whether the tested samples were of good quality.

Home management of malaria with artemether-lumefantrine compared with standard care in urban Ugandan children: a randomised controlled trial

Sarah G Staedke et al | 14 Apr 2009 | The Lancet

Home management of malaria—the presumptive treatment of febrile children with antimalarial drugs—is advocated to ensure prompt effective treatment of the disease. We assessed the effect of home delivery of artemether-lumefantrine on the incidence of antimalarial treatment and on clinical outcomes in children from an urban setting with fairly low malaria transmission.

Review: Provider Practice and User Behavior Interventions to Improve Prompt and Effective Treatment of Malaria: Do We Know What Works?

Lucy A. Smith et al | 16 Mar 2009 | American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Effective case management of uncomplicated malaria is a cornerstone of successful malaria control. With current calls for the global elimination of malaria, all strategies to control malaria need to reach the highest achievable level of effective implementation.

The efficacy and safety of a new fixed-dose combination of amodiaquine and artesunate in young African children with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum

Sodiomon B Sirima et al | 16 Mar 2009 | Malaria Journal

Artesunate (AS) plus amodiaquine (AQ) is one artemisinin-based combination (ACT) recommended by the WHO for treating Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Fixed-dose AS/AQ is new, but its safety and efficacy are hitherto untested.

Physical and chemical stability of expired fixed dose combination artemether-lumefantrine in uncontrolled tropical conditions

Roger Bate, Richard Tren, Kimberly Hess & Amir Attaran | 25 Feb 2009 | Malaria Journal

New artemisinin combination therapies pose difficulties of implementation in developing and tropical settings because they have a short shelf-life (two years) relative to the medicines they replace. This limits the reliability and cost of treatment, and the acceptability of this treatment to health care workers. A multi-pronged investigation was made into the chemical and physical stability of fixed dose combination artemether-lumefantrine (FDC-ALU) stored under heterogeneous, uncontrolled African conditions, to probe if a shelf-life extension might be possible.

Failure of artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southern Cambodia

William Rogers et al | 12 Jan 2009 | Malaria Journal

Resistance to anti-malarial drugs hampers control efforts and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality from malaria. The efficacy of standard therapies for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria was assessed in Chumkiri, Kampot Province, Cambodia.

Deployment of ACT antimalarials for treatment of malaria: challenges and opportunities

Christopher JM Whitty et al | 11 Dec 2008 | Malaria Journal

Following a long period when the effectiveness of existing mono-therapies for antimalarials was steadily declining with no clear alternative, most malaria-endemic countries in Africa and Asia have adopted artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) as antimalarial drug policy.