Research

Combining Indoor Residual Spraying and Insecticide-Treated Net Interventions

Immo Kleinschmidt et al | 29 Sep 2009 | American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Does scaling up of malaria control by combining indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) enhance protection to populations?

Decreased motivation in the use of insecticide-treated nets in a malaria endemic area in Burkina Faso

Lea Pare Toe et al | 29 Jul 2009 | Malaria Journal

The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) is an important tool in the Roll Back Malaria strategy. For ITNs to be effective they need to be used correctly. Previous studies have shown that many factors, such as wealth, access to health care, education, ethnicity and gender, determine the ownership and use of ITNs.

Marked Increase in Child Survival after Four Years of Intensive Malaria Control

Immo Kleinschmidt et al | 03 Jun 2009 | American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

In malaria-endemic countries in Africa, a large proportion of child deaths are directly or indirectly attributable to infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Four years after high coverage, multiple malaria control interventions were introduced on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, changes in infection with malarial parasites, anemia, and fever history in children were estimated and assessed in relation to changes in all-cause under-5 mortality.

Household possession, use and non-use of treated or untreated mosquito nets in two ecologically diverse regions of Nigeria - Niger Delta and Sahel Savannah

Bamgboye M. Afolabi et al | 19 Feb 2009 | Malaria Journal

This study found that despite the fact that treated nets were distributed widely across Nigeria, the use of this commodity was still very low in the Sahel Savanna region. Future campaigns should include more purposeful social and health education on the importance and advantages of the use of treated nets to save lives in the Sahel Savannah region of Nigeria.

Integrated vector management for malaria control

John C Beier et al | 11 Dec 2008 | Malaria Journal

Integrated vector management (IVM) is defined as "a rational decision-making process for the optimal use of resources for vector control" and includes five key elements: 1) evidence-based decision-making, 2) integrated approaches 3), collaboration within the health sector and with other sectors, 4) advocacy, social mobilization, and legislation, and 5) capacity-building. In 2004, the WHO adopted IVM globally for the control of all vector-borne diseases. Important recent progress has been made in developing and promoting IVM for national malaria control programmes in Africa at a time when successful malaria control programmes are scaling-up with insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage.

Gains in awareness, ownership and use of insecticide-treated nets in Nigeria, Senegal, Uganda and Zambia

Carol A Baume & Celeste Marin | 07 Aug 2008 | Malaria Journal

In April 2000, the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) "Abuja Summit" set a target of having at least 60% of pregnant women and children under five use insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Thereafter, programmes were implemented to create demand, reduce taxes and tariffs, spur the commercial market, and reach vulnerable populations with free or subsidized ITNs. Using national ITN monitoring data from the USAID-sponsored AED/NetMark project, this article examines the extent to which these activities were successful in increasing awareness, ownership, and use of nets and ITNs.

Utilization of insecticide-treated nets by under-five children in Nigeria: Assessing progress towards the Abuja targets

Olusola B. Oresanya, Moshe Hoshen & Olayemi T. Sofola | 30 Jul 2008 | Malaria Journal

Household ownership of any net in Nigeria was 23.9% (95% CI, 22.8%-25.1%) and 10.1% for ITNs (95% CI, 9.2%-10.9%). Education, wealth index, presence of an under-five child in the household, family size, residence, and region by residence were predictive of ownership of any net. The presence of an under-five child in the household, family size, education, presence of health facility in the community, gender of household head, region by residence and wealth index by education predicted ITN ownership. Utilization of any net by children under-five was 11.5% (95% CI, 10.4%-12.6%) and 1.7% (95% CI, 1.3%-2.2%) for ITN. Predictors of use of any net among under-five children were fever in the previous two weeks, presence of health facility in the community, caregiver's education, residence, and wealth index by caregiver's education; while religion, presence of health facility and wealth index by caregiver's education predicted the use of ITN among this group.

Spatial Targeted Vector Control Is Able to Reduce Malaria Prevalence in the Highlands of Burundi

Natacha Protopopoff | 09 Jul 2008 | American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

[AFM NOTE: Research from Burundi demonstrates the importance of IRS as part of a comprehensive approach to malaria control.  As John Beier explains in an editorial in the same issue of the Am. J Trop. Med. Hyg. this important success story underlines the importance of publishing success stories in peer reviewed journals and continuing research to develop comprehensive integrated vector management systems based on sound science and evidence]

Uganda's Mosquito-Spraying Effort Must Consider Resistance Issues

None | 20 Jun 2008 | The National Academies

The Ugandan government recently started spraying insecticides in homes and settlements to combat mosquitoes that spread malaria, the country's leading cause of death. A new report from a committee of the Uganda National Academy of Sciences (UNAS) says that as the spraying continues, the government needs to monitor mosquitoes for resistance to insecticides, and manage the spraying program in ways that minimize resistance. UNAS is a participant in the African Science Academy Development Initiative, a joint effort of several African academies and the U.S. National Academies to advance science-based policy advice in Africa.

Preventing malaria in endemic areas

Donald Roberts | 24 Oct 2007 | British Medical Journal

About 40% of the world's population, most of whom live in the poorest countries, are at risk from malaria. In Africa alone, malaria kills nearly a million children each year. Although we have the tools to fight malaria, such as insecticides for indoor residual spraying, environmentalist campaigns and some ill conceived decisions on public health policy have limited their use.