Research

Pre-elimination of malaria on the island of Principe

Pei-Wen Lee et al | 20 Jan 2010 | Malaria Journal

Plasmodium falciparum is the major species responsible for malaria transmission on the island of Principe, in the Republic of Sao Tome and Principe (STP). Indoor residual spraying (IRS) has been intensively deployed on the island, since 2003.

Possible Interruption of Malaria Transmission, Highland Kenya, 2007-2008

Chandy C. John et al | 08 Dec 2009 | Emerging Infectious Diseases

Highland areas where malaria transmission is unstable are targets for malaria elimination because transmission decreases to low levels during the dry season. In highland areas of Kipsamoite and Kapsisiywa, Kenya, annual household IRS with a synthetic pyrethroid was performed starting in 2005, and artemether/lumefantrine was implemented as first-line malaria treatment in October 2006.

Early results of integrated malaria control and implications for the management of fever in under-five children at a peripheral health facility: a case study of Chongwe rural health centre in Zambia

Pascalina Chanda et al | 17 Mar 2009 | Malaria Journal

Malaria related OPD visits have reduced at Chongwe rural health facility. The reduction in health facility malaria cases has led to an increase in diagnoses of respiratory infections. These findings have implications for the management of non-malaria fevers in children under the age of five years.

Integrated vector management: the Zambian experience

Emmanuel Chanda et al | 27 Aug 2008 | Malaria Journal

The Zambian Malaria Control Programme with the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) partners have developed the current National Malaria Strategic Plan (NMSP 2006-2011) which focuses on prevention based on the Integrated Vector Management (IVM) strategy. The introduction and implementation of an IVM strategy was planned in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) steps towards IVM implementation namely Introduction Phase, Consolidation Phase and Expansion Phase.

Malaria incidence in Limpopo Province, South Africa, 1998-2007

Annette AM Gerritsen, Philip Kruger, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff & Martin P Grobusch | 25 Aug 2008 | Malaria Journal

Malaria is endemic in the low-altitude areas of the northern and eastern parts of South Africa with seasonal transmission. The aim of this descriptive study is to give an overview of the malaria incidence and mortality in Limpopo Province for the seasons 1998-1999 to 2006-2007 and to detect trends over time and place.

A new global malaria eradication strategy

Richard Feachem & Oliver Sabot | 27 Mar 2008 | The Lancet

On Oct 17, 2007, Bill and Melinda Gates called for complete eradication to be adopted as the new goal for the age-old fight against malaria, with the Director General of WHO, Margaret Chan, promptly echoing their conviction. Although debate over the wisdom of this target will continue, growing impatience with the low ambitions of current efforts, fuelled by reductions in morbidity and mortality in some countries and progress in the development of new drugs and the first-ever vaccine, will lead many decision makers to adopt eradication of malaria as the primary aim for their organisations.

Keeping Malaria Out Of Zanzibar

None | 26 Mar 2008 | Africa Fighting Malaria

In November 2007, Africa Fighting Malaria (AFM) visited Zanzibar to document the islands' progress in controlling malaria. In this report, we briefly describe the history of malaria control on Zanzibar and track the progression of the current program, which has successfully managed to bring the disease under control.

Broken Promise? Taxes and Tariffs on Insecticide Treated Mosquito Nets

Martin Alilio et al | 08 Oct 2007 | American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Seven years ago, the removal of taxes and tariffs on insecticide treated nets (ITNs) was considered one of the easiest resolutions for most countries to implement among the targets agreed upon at the African Summit on Roll Back Malaria in Abuja, Nigeria, on April 25, 2000. However, seven years later, 24 of the 39 Abuja signatories continue to impose taxes and tariffs on this life-saving tool. Taxes and tariffs significantly increase the price of an insecticide treated net, reduce affordability, and discourage the commercial sector from importing insecticide treated net products. Consequently, Roll Back Malaria partners are engaged in advocacy efforts to remove taxes and tariffs on insecticide treated nets in malaria-endemic countries of Africa. This viewpoint summarizes key obstacles to the removal of taxes and tariffs that have been identified through a review of country situations. To achieve the goal of producing and supplying more than 160 million insecticide treated nets needed to reach the revised Roll Back Malaria Partnership targets by 2010, tax and tariff reforms are urgently needed. Such reforms must be accompanied by country-specific systems to protect the poor (e.g., through voucher systems for vulnerable groups and other forms of targeted subsidies).

Working Paper on Mosquitoes: The Long-term Effects of Malaria Eradication in India

Cutler et al. | 01 Oct 2007 | Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government

We examine the effects of malaria on educational attainment by exploiting geographic variation in malaria prevalence in India prior to a nationwide eradication program in the 1950s. Malaria eradication resulted in gains in literacy and primary school completion rates of approximately 12 percentage points. These estimates imply that the eradication of malaria can explain about half of the gains in these measures of educational attainment between the pre and post-eradication periods in areas where malaria was prevalent. The effects are not present in urban areas, where malaria was not considered to be a problem in the pre-eradication period. The results cannot be explained by convergence across areas. We find gains for both men and women as well as for members of scheduled castes and tribes, a traditionally disadvantaged group.

Seven Years of Regional Malaria Control Collaboration - Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland

Sharp et al | 25 Jan 2007 | American Journal of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

The Lubombo Spatial Development Initiative is a joint development program between the governments of Mozambique, Swaziland, and South Africa, which includes malaria control as a core component of the initiative.