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Climate Change and Malaria  - Indur Goklany - with response from Sir David King
Indur Goklany offers some fascinating insights into climate change, malaria, poverty and development. Sir David King, the UK Government's chief scientific adviser gives a predicable response.

The Real Obstacles to Sound Treatment of AIDS in Poor Countries  - Roger Bate & Richard Tren
Writing for the American Enterprise Institute's Health Policy Outlook, Bate and Tren explore some of the reasons for low drug access in poor countries. Despite promises of cheap or free antiretroviral drugs, Bate and Tren argue that access to treatment in poor countries is abysmally low because of a lack of infrastructure, political indifference, excessive bureaucracy and taxes and tariffs.

South Africa's War Against Malaria - Lessons for the Developing World  - Richard Tren & Roger Bate
The Cato Institute published Richard Tren and Roger Bate's analysis of South Africa's recent history with malaria control. They argue that its policy on DDT use and Artemesinin based combination therapy provide excellent examples for other malarial countries.

SA's Leading Malaria Researchers Support DDT Use  -
South Africa’s leading malaria control experts, researchers and doctors support and endorse the use of the insecticide DDT to control malaria. Their statement is released in light of recent claims that DDT is harmful to human health and should be removed from South Africa’s malaria control programme.

South African Malaria Data  - SA Dept of Health
November 2003 - the malaria statistics show that malaria is still well under control in South Africa. A recent epidemic in the Limpopo Province was primarily caused by late spraying and poor case management.

South Africa Malaria Data  - SA Dept of Health
The latest data on malaria cases and deaths from South Africa show that the country's policy of indoor residual spraying with DDT (among other insecticides) and the use of artemesinin based combination therapy is working. KwaZulu Natal, traditionally the province with the worst malaria and the centre of the recent epidemic has only recorded 1 malaria death this year!

South Africa Malaria Statistics  - Dept of Health
The 11th Dept of Health Malaria Update shows the latest number of confirmed cases and deaths from malaria in the three malarial provinces of South Africa.

Saving Lives Today and Tomorrow  - Dr. Roger Bate
This paper analyses trends in drug development using data from the drug industry association, the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA). Worryingly, the findings suggest that far fewer AIDS drugs are in development compared to several years ago, and at a time when drug development for other communicable diseases is increasing. There are several probable explanations for this phenomenon, but the least benign is the likelihood that continual pressure group and media attacks on the industry over pricing of drugs in Africa has reduced incentives for development of new AIDS medicines

South African Malaria Update  - SA Dept of Health
The latest malaria update from the Directorate of Communicable Diseases.

AFM statement to the Southern Africa Malaria Control Meeting, Lusaka Zambia. July 2003

Scaling up malaria control

Private sector and public sector responsibility

There have been several notable successes in malaria control in recent years, particularly in South Africa, Mozambique and Zambia. Yet these initiatives must be sustained and expanded to provide the many millions of people in southern Africa proper protection against malaria.

In order to scale up malaria control, we should take into account certain fundamental issues. First and foremost is the link between poverty and disease. Poor country governments are less likely to be able to sustain scaled up malaria control and individuals in those countries will be unable to afford personal protection and treatment.

Governments therefore should concentrate on ensuring that they enact policies that foster economic growth. These include stable and accountable government, the rule of law, strong protection of property rights, open trade policies and low taxes, duties and tariffs. In addition government interference, restrictions and other inhibitors of economic growth should be minimised or eliminated.

We need to recognise that the production, distribution and marketing of many of the tools needed to combat malaria is best done by the private sector. In addition we must recognise the important role that the private sector has already played in developing and marketing products. Creating a profitable and viable business plan will be essential in order to encourage further development of products and malaria control technologies.

Competition between suppliers will be essential in order to ensure price reductions. Policies should be in place to ensure that malaria control products will be purchased from low cost suppliers, provided quality is ensured. Policies that guarantee to purchase from local suppliers will not necessarily ensure lowest cost or highest quality and could undermine local development by encouraging inefficient industries.

Governments should recognise the important role that intellectual property (IP) protection plays in encouraging new research. Where IP laws do not exist, governments should consider providing such protection so as to encourage research and development in Africa. As the evidence mounts that IP is seldom a barrier to drug access, the arguments against such laws are increasingly redundant.

The important contributions from the private sector in the form of donations, discounted prices, logistical support and advice and other corporate social responsibility activities should be further encouraged and expanded in order to effectively scale up programmes.

No expansion of programmes will be possible without the recognition that many households will be unable to afford insecticide treated nets (ITNs), drugs and other tools. Governments and donor agencies need to commit the necessary funding to support the poor and provide low cost or free treatment and vector control where appropriate. Relying on mechanisms, such as voucher schemes that can benefit from the advantages of private sector distribution and marketing should be encouraged. Vouchers that can be exchanged at shops for bed nets or other public health tools allow individuals to make more choices and give them more power over public funds.

No statement on private sector responsibilities, however, would be complete without a statement on public sector responsibilities.

AFM calls on all governments, public sector bodies, UN agencies and donor agencies to:

  • Reduce bureaucratic impediments to producing, importing, distributing and marketing anti-malaria products and drugs. This includes working with the Medicine Control Councils (MCC) in various countries to ensure that registration times for new drugs are reduced. We call on these MCCs to make real steps towards greater cooperation, streamlining, efficiency and recognition of registrations in other countries.
  • Reduce barriers to the use of DDT in malaria control. Many countries use DDT to save lives and reduce morbidity, yet the bureaucratic barriers to trading this insecticide are considerable. This leads to delays in importing which seriously hampers malaria control, particularly during epidemic conditions. All SADC countries should therefore streamline and simplify their regulations over DDT handling and trade and should apply to UNEP/WHO for exemption from these requirements if and when the Stockholm Convention comes into force.
  • Remove barriers to trade, such as poorly enforced tenders and trade agreements, burdensome import and export regulations and corruption.
  • Remove taxes and tariffs on ITNs, drugs and other malaria control equipment. Taxing life saving equipment and drugs is indefensible and there will be no substantial scaling up of services with these barriers in place.
  • Understand the constraints and limitation of the private sector. The private sector needs certain guarantees and assurances that orders will be placed and requires notice when delivery of malaria control products is required. To this end, the public sector should improve their coordination and communication with the private sector. More effective this communication will lead to more effective malaria control and sustained scale up.