"While malaria keeps people poor, donor agencies and governments do have it within their capacities to reduce the burden of the disease significantly. Donor agencies can stop their piecemeal anti malaria projects that might provide good photo opportunities for their brochures, but do nothing for long term malaria control. If these agencies are committed to malaria control, they should engage with the scientific community and fund activities that will work and will save lives (such as DDT spraying) despite the protestations from the greens in their safe malaria-free hometowns."
Ban on DDT led to death and suffering -- Richard Tren, Business Day, 2001-06-05
"MAY 27 was a special day for environmentalists - it was Rachel Carson's birthday.
Carson, who died in 1964, is largely credited with launching the modern environmentalist movement with her book Silent Spring. Published in 1962, it alleged that widespread agricultural use of the pesticide DDT was the cause of enormous environmental harm, in particular to birds and their egg shells. Her treatise led to the banning of DDT in many countries.
Last week the United Nations outlawed the dirty dozen chemicals the greens love to hate.
Carson was reluctant to point out the immense benefit that DDT brought to millions of people, mostly in poor countries, as it protected them from malaria and other diseases. The banning of DDT created a terrible toll on malaria sufferers with immeasurable death and suffering in the developing world."
Behavioral response of Anopheles darlingi to DDT-sprayed house walls in Amazonia. -- Roberts DR, Alecrim WD, National Library of Medicine, 2000-11-06
This is a summary of the article. [If you know of an online location of the article, please let us know.]
Insecticide resistance issues in vector-borne disease control. -- D.R. Roberts, Andre RG, National Library of Medicine, 2000-11-06
This is a summary of the article. If you know of an online link to the article, please email us.
New malaria vaccine? -- Valerie Depraetere, Nature.com, 2000-10-31
According to this article, "Scientists may have taken an important step towards developing an urgently-needed malaria vaccine. The discovery of a protein from the malaria parasite that induces an immune response in chimpanzees could help in the fight against the disease that kills more than one million children in sub-Saharan Africa each year."
How Environmentalism Kills the Poor -- Roger Bate, Wall Street Journal, 2000-10-05
Dr. Bate argues that "Western agencies have been opposed to DDT use for decades because they mistakenly believe that DDT in low doses isdangerous to humans and the environment. True, DDT harms wildlife when used inmassive quantities (such as on U.S. cotton farms in the 1950s). But when sprayed indoors there is no evidence of any harm to humans or environment."
DDT house spraying and re-emerging malaria -- D R Roberts, S Manguin, J Mouchet , Lancet 2000; 356: 330 - 332, 2000-07-22
The authors examine the role of DDT in malaria eradication, resistance to DDT, environmental concerns about DDT, the potential consequences of a ban on DDT, and the future of malaria. They recommend "that the global response to burgeoning malaria rates should allow for DDT residual house spraying where it is known to be effective and necessary."
How Toxic Is DDT? -- A. G. Smith, Lancet 2000; 356: 267-268, 2000-07-22
Smith writes, "DDT can cause many toxicological effects but the effects on human beings at likely exposure levels seem to be very slight. However, the perceived rather than the calculated risks from DDT use are an important consideration in maintaining public confidence. Thus it would seem prudent that if its use was continued for antimalarial campaigns and the benefits of use outweigh the risks, tight control should continue and the effects of spraying DDT should be closely monitored."
The Case for DDT -- J. Raloff, Science News, 2000-07-01
This article discusses the use of DDT for preventing malaria, noting that environmentalists want it completely eliminated from any usage. Raloff writes, "Some tropical-disease specialists laud DDT as an irreplaceable weapon in their fight against malaria...Which view prevails may be a life-and-death matter for nearly a half-billion people."
A DDT Ban Would Be Deadly -- Lorraine Mooney, Wall Street Journal, 1999-09-02
According to Ms. Mooney, "The DDT-malaria issue is a stark illustration of the conflict between the developed and developing world. For the sake of a possible environmental threat to birds of prey in the "civilized" world, millions of people in developing countries are dying. This must stop. The U.N. delegates in Geneva should vote against banning DDT."
No relation between DDT and breast cancer rates -- various, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, 1999-09-01
"A case-control study was conducted in Connecticut from 1994 to 1997 to investigate the relation between dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure and breast cancer risk...[The] results do not support an association between adipose tissue levels of DDE and DDT and breast cancer risk."
Global Warming and Vector-Borne Disease: Is Warmer Sicker? -- Paul Reiter, Competitive Enterprise Institute, 1998-07-28
In this article, Dr. Paul Reiter, Chief Entomologist of the Centers for Disease Control’s Dengue Fever, develops the following arguments:
Malaria, dengue fever, and Yellow fever are not actually "tropical" diseases.
In all cases, local conditions (such as the banning of DDT, land use changes, or foreign contact) account for expansions of disease vectors or increases in infection rates.
Developed countries like the United States need not fear the spread of insect-borne diseases provided they remain prosperous.
DDT, Global Strategies, and a Malaria Control Crisis in South America -- Donald R. Roberts, Larry L. Laughlin, Paul Hsheih, and Llewellyn J. Legters , Emerging Infectious Diseases Volume 3, Number 3, 1997-07-01
According to the authors, "Malaria is reemerging in endemic-disease countries of South America." They state that "true growth in malaria incidence corresponds temporally with changes in global strategies for malaria control." This article discusses "recent actions to ban DDT, the health costs of such a ban, perspectives on DDT use in agriculture versus malaria control, and costs versus benefits of DDT and alternative insecticides."
Changing Patterns of Autochthonous Malaria Transmission in the United States: A Review of Recent Outbreaks -- Jane R. Zucker, M.D., M.Sc., Emerging Infectious Diseases Volume 2, Number 1, 1996-01-01
Three recent outbreaks of locally acquired malaria in densely populated areas of the United States demonstrate the continued risk for mosquitoborne transmission of this disease. Increased global travel, immigration, and the presence of competent anopheline vectors throughout the continental United States contribute to the ongoing threat of malaria transmission. The likelihood of mosquitoborne transmission in the United States is dependent on the interactions between the human host, anopheline vector, malaria parasite, and environmental conditions. Recent changes in the epidemiology of locally acquired malaria and possible factors contributing to these changes are discussed.